What is Bioconjugation?

Before diving deeper into the application of Bioconjugation, it is important we learn what it is.

Bioconjugation is the chemical joining of two molecules to create one hybrid molecule, where at least one of the partners is a biomolecule. This collaboration exemplifies the adage “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

As a result of bioconjugation, the final product/molecule maintains the activity of each constituent molecule while also adding a set of new functions that neither molecule could achieve alone.

Bioconjugation involves adding complementary but distinct functional groups to each of the biomolecules, thereby allowing the molecules to bind to each other. This is accomplished through the modification process, which involves attaching linkers to amines or thiol groups on biomolecules before mixing them together.

An excellent example of bioconjugates are antibodies that are bound to fluorophores. These antibodies can recognize target analytes. Additionally, they can produce a measurable readout that confirms the presence of the analyte.

Another example is proteins that attach to agarose beads. It is possible to use these proteins to immunoprecipitate specific binding partners from solutions without using secondary reagents.

Case Study #1

One of the most essential utilities of Bioconjugation is its role in drug targeting. In fact, the FDA is currently evaluating around 80 antibody-conjugated medication candidates.o

Researchers sought to enhance the selectivity of a Bristol-Myers Squibb medication against the CXCR4 antigen produced by T cells (1) in the first case study. This targeting method would considerably aid them in delivering the medicine to cells, and also it might decrease tyrosine kinase activity and stop the signal transduction cascade inside tumour cells. They attached an antibody to the medication using SoluLINK┬« conjugation chemistry. The rate of intracellular drug payload and cell entrance increased as a result of this conjugation. If you are in need of bioconjugation then you can easily find them by doing a google search for ‘bioconjugation services UK‘.

Case Study #2

Bioconjugation was also used in the development of DNA-antibody barcoded arrays used in high-throughput single-cell protein identification. On a glass surface, the researchers first created a monolayer made of single-stranded DNA microbeads. They used antibodies to hybridize the single strands with a specified set of proteins in the solution. They were able to bind antibodies to complementary DNA using SoluLINK chemistry and validate protein identification using sandwich ELISA.

(2). Bioconjugation could improve the accuracy of cell biology and pathology studies, as well as clinical diagnostics.

Case Study 3

Bioconjugation also benefits genome sequencing of tumours as well as the characterisation of tumour cell markers. Conventional/Traditional immunolabeling methods by contrast have glaring deficiencies in identifying heterogeneous cell subpopulations.

Oregon Health and Science University’s Biomedical Engineering Department has developed a novel method whereby they conjugated 14 different antibodies to form oligonucleotides (3). What is unique with these oligos is that they feature complimentary fluorophore strands that also have photo-cleavable linkers.

Consequently, researchers could quantify strand and antibody concentrations using cyclic immunofluorescence as they identified antigens in breast cancer tissues in humans.